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四级备考:明察秋毫,提高抗干扰能力

2014-09-12 16:55   类别:   来源:   责编:Simple


  干扰选项常见特征


  顾名思义,干扰项的目的就是扰乱考生思维,将思路引入歧途。细节题中的干扰项较容易排除,只要发现选项有一处缺乏原文事实的支持就可以排除。推理类题目和主旨类题目的干扰项迷惑性更强一些。


  一些选项可以根据主题直接排除,如说法绝对的,违反客观事实/常识的。


  逻辑思路要清晰!逻辑判断小练习


  If Sarah were a concert pianist for a major orchestra, she would be famous. She is not a concert pianist since she is not famous.


  The conclusion above is unsound because the author does not consider that


  (A) Sarah could be a famous actress.


  (B) Sarah could be a violinist for a major orchestra.


  (C) Sarah could be a pianist with a rock group.


  (D) Sarah could be a concert pianist with a minor orchestra.


  逻辑指代、范围、特征等等都可能被用来做文章。要特别小心对待。


  1.细节类题目


  (1)无中生有:凭空捏造原文不存在的细节,以迷惑和干扰考生,制造的假象让考生怀疑自己是否漏读了原文的相关信息。破解方法仍然是准确定位。有的是故意偏离主旨(通过通读的句子概括出的大意就可以排除)


  (2)常识错位:干扰项是一些基本常识和我们对社会、生活等方面一些问题的一般看法和认识,虽然符合客观现实,但并非文章所提及的或侧重的。


  此类干扰项很容易导致粗心错误,因为选项的说法符合我们的一般认识,使得干扰项先入为主,误导了判断,忽略了要从原文验证。


  !!!谨防喧宾夺主,越俎代庖!!!


  症状将一些常识带入思考,放松、甚至忘记了一切答案要以原文为依据。


  特别提示:留意不需看原文就能自圆其说的选项,这些选项通常为高度疑似错误答案,需要提高警惕。


  (3) 偷梁换柱:


  这是细节题干扰项最常见的方法,是大多数同学由于粗心失分的地方。干扰项利用了原文的一部分结构和词汇,但在一些位置换掉个别词,造成了语义的变化。


  特别提示:要留意选项各个句子成分是否与原文表述的意义一致。地点,时间,方式,程度 (副词),性质 (如形容词),甚至是主语和谓语都可能被偷换掉。


  根本解决方法是细心求证选中的答案是否经得起原文的考验。这就要求我们在核对选项时需要把所有意群跟原文相应意群逐一进行对比,只要有偷换意群的,就是错误选项。


  用数学方法来描述就是正负得负。


  细节题不要跟着感觉走!


  不能只凭一个单词的印象就选择答案!


  必须去原文核实选项的每一个成分!


  Example 1:


  Richard Satava, program manager for advanced medical technologies, has been a driving force in bringing virtual reality to medicine, where computers create a "virtual" or simulated environment for surgeons and other medical practitioners (从业者).


  "With virtual reality we'll be able to put a surgeon in every trench," said Satava. He envisaged a time when soldiers who are wounded fighting overseas are put in mobile surgical units equipped with computers.


  The computers would transmit images of the soldiers to surgeons back in the U.S. The surgeons would look at the soldier through virtual reality helmets (头盔) that contain a small screen displaying the image of the wound. The doctors would guide robotic instruments in the battlefield mobile surgical unit that operate on the soldier.


  Although Satava's vision may be years away from standard operating procedure, scientists are progressing toward virtual reality surgery. ......


  37. Richard Satava has visions of_____.


  A) using a remote-control technique to treat wounded soldiers fighting overseas


  B) wounded soldiers being saved by doctors wearing virtual reality helmets on the battlefield 【细节陷阱: 方式、地点】


  C) wounded soldiers being operated on by specially trained surgeons


  D) setting up mobile surgical units overseas


  提示:根据问题信息,判断原文相关信息的位置。要善于利用各种举例、指代关系。


  Example 2:


  Such acceptance of community responsibility is not unique to businesses in Japan. School principals in Japan have resigned when heir students committed major crimes after school hours. Even if they do not quit, Japanese executives will often accept primary responsibility in other ways, such as taking the first pay cut when a company gets into financial trouble. Such personal sacrifices, even if they are largely symbolic, help to create the sense of community and employee loyalty that is crucial to the Japanese way of doing business.


  22. According to the passage if you want to be a good manager in Japan, you have to ________.


  A) apologize promptly for your subordinates' mistakes


  B) be skillful in accepting blames from customers


  C) make symbolic sacrifices whenever necessary


  D) create a strong sense of company loyalty


  启示:切勿断章取义!抓住原文关键、挖掘要准确!解析原文要准确,选项里每一个意群都要对照原文,核对是否有出入。


  (4)推理题和细节题里的推理类选项


  夸大后果:对于原文中的细节或论断的某方面程度(比如后果)进行了夸大处理。


  如:某文章可能提到Anxietyàmental stress的因果关系,但干扰项可能出现Anxiousàmental disorder。


  2.主旨类题目:


  主旨归纳题


  (1)以偏概全:在概括文章或段落大意时,用某一个段落的观点或细节冒充全文主要观点、中心思想的选项。也就是归纳概括的范围不足。


  (2)主题扩大:归纳概括的范围过大,超过了文章讨论东西,与主旨大意是包含关系。


  3.态度语气题:


  干扰选项通常说法片面或偏激。六级阅读所选文章通常是理性的说明和论证,具有较强逻辑性,作者对于所讨论专题的态度不会是极其偏激的。如目前只作为干扰项出现过的有arbitrary(武断的),subjective(主观的),prejudiced(有偏见的), indifferent等。而成为正确选项的最安全选项是concerned。这类题目抓住基本特征,是属于必得的分数。


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